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The "Other" Baseline

Do you sometimes leak or have the urgency to go to the bathroom as soon as you hit the court or during exercise? Maybe it’s just nerves. Or, maybe it’s something more. Have you ever leaked when you sneeze, laugh, or cough? Do you have pain in your pelvic region when you exercise or play tennis? Have you previously had a baby, or have a history of low back pain, SI joint pain, or hip pain? You talk with your friends, and it’s completely normal, right? WRONG!! Urinary leakage and urgency are not normal functions of our body, so even though it can be common, it’s not normal.

The problem could involve your pelvic floor muscles.

pelvic floor dysfunction

Pelvic floor dysfunction is common in the active/athletic populations, especially those involving high impact sports, and can affect women who have or have not given birth. You may be surprised to hear that even men can struggle with pelvic floor dysfunction. Statistics show that 1 out of every 5 Americans will experience some type of pelvic floor dysfunction in their lifetime and over 25 million will have urinary incontinence (involuntary leakage). The National Institutes of Health reported that approximately 25% of women have pelvic floor dysfunction.

What exactly is the pelvic floor? The pelvic floor is made up of 3 layers of muscles that sit within your pelvis. They have four primary functions: 1) urine and bowel continence (the pelvic floor muscles contract involuntarily in healthy people to make sure you don’t accidentally urinate); 2) sexual function 3) support for the pelvic and abdominal organs (think of these muscles as a hammock that hold up the abdominal organs); and 4) core and pelvic stability. The pelvic floor muscles are important because they are a part of the deep core system. Wait - isn’t the core my six-pack abs? No, your core muscles are deep and run along the spine and pelvis. They consist of: the diaphragm (the muscle we use for breathing) at the top, the transverse abdominus from the front, the multifidus muscles that run posteriorly along your spine from the back, and the pelvic floor muscles from below. These muscles create a “canister” within our core that provide stability. The pelvic floor muscles are connected to the pelvis, the lumbar spine, and the hips, so without good pelvic floor function and control, your core stability will be compromised, regardless of how many sit-ups or planks you do.

How does the pelvic floor work during exercise? When we move during sport activity, the pressure in the abdomen increases. As this occurs, the pelvic floor (the hammock/sling system) responds to the load and increased pressure, enhancing stability in our pelvis and spine. Research shows a normal pelvic floor has been shown to contract (lift) automatically prior to ANY type of movement, whether you are running cross court or just volleying back and forth. The ability of the pelvic floor to not only lift but also lengthen and respond to impact (like jumping and cutting) is critical for spinal support as well as bowel and bladder function. When the pelvic floor is not functioning well, it may stay over-active and chronically lifted, or just “give up” and not lift at all. This results in pelvic floor dysfunction; when intra-abdominal pressure increases (i.e. during the tennis serve, running cross court, or even laughing), leakage of urine or feces may result. Remember how we mentioned earlier that the pelvic floor muscles are connected to the lumbar spine and hips? If an underlying pelvic floor issue is not resolved or goes undetected, it may contribute to persistent low back, SI joint, and/or hip pain, which not only affects your performance on the tennis court, but also your performance with daily activities as simple as walking, lifting, and caring for your family.

Does pelvic floor dysfunction only apply to women? No, it’s very common in men as well and many Pelvic Health Physical Therapists treat both men and women.

How can physical therapy help with my possible pelvic floor dysfunction? A Physical Therapist who specializes in pelvic floor dysfunction and pelvic pain is able to assess the ability of your pelvic floor muscles to contract properly utilizing real-time ultrasound, or they may manually assess your pelvic floor to determine the system’s ability to work correctly. Urinary or fecal leakage, urgency, and pain are the result of different types of pelvic floor dysfunction. The muscles of the pelvic floor may have difficulty contracting, they may be weak, or they may be tight and unable to relax. Many times the issue is more of coordination and control, so learning how to use these muscles in the right way is important in restoring normal function. Regardless of cause, your Physical Therapist will tailor your program to your specific needs. Your PT will utilize techniques, including manual therapy and massage, breathing techniques and stretching to facilitate muscle relaxation if the pelvic floor muscles are overactive or tight (hypertonic). If the pelvic floor muscles are found to be too weak or underactive (hypotonic), techniques and exercises that facilitate good muscle activation would be implemented so the deep core and pelvic floor muscles can work together as a system and restore normal function.

You may have been told that to prevent or to improve urinary leakage you should do Kegel exercises. While Kegels may be helpful, not all people or all exercises were created equal. If your pelvic floor dysfunction is due to tightness, over-activity or poor coordination, doing Kegels could make your situation worse. A thorough evaluation by a skilled Physical Therapist who understands pelvic floor dysfunction will outline which interventions are best for your specific case. Your Physical Therapist will implement a plan of care that is tailored to your needs in order to get you back on the court without leaking!

Should I see a Pelvic Physical Therapist or Women’s Health Specialist? If you have recently had a baby, regardless of C-section or vaginal delivery, it is important for you to be cleared by a Pelvic Physical Therapist in order to prevent future pelvic, low back or hip pain. You may not have pain now, but it may develop as your baby gets bigger and heavier for you to lift, or you could have a Diastisis Recti, which is a separation of the abdominal muscles. Diastisis Recti is treatable and Pelvic PTs are well trained in how to restore your body post-natally.

If you are already seeing a Physical Therapist for your tailbone, hip or back pain and they are not trained to evaluate your pelvic floor function, have your current PT co-treat with a Pelvic PT so together they can help you achieve your goals and get you back on the court without leaking.


Are you experiencing any of the above symptoms? It can be difficult or embarrassing to talk about, but the good news is pelvic floor dysfunction is manageable with conservative treatment for most people, so a consultation with a Pelvic Health Physical Therapist will be worth it. In many cases you may directly see a Physical Therapist without a referral, or you may contact your Physician or OBGYN (for the ladies) to seek a referral to a pelvic health specialist in your area. For more information, see if you are in the Atlanta area or visit the women’s health section for the American Physical Therapy Association at to locate a Pelvic Health Physical Therapist in your area.

Dr. Hixson is a Physical Therapist and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist who works at One-on-One Physical Therapy, a multidisciplinary private practice in Atlanta. She specializes in orthopedic related injuries and conditions and has a special interest in sports physical therapy. She is trained in pelvic health and pelvic floor dysfunction and enjoys working with active women who struggle with urinary incontinence. To learn more, visit or you can reach Dr. Hixson at

Dr. Baudo Marchetti is a Board Certified Sports Clinical Specialist at One on One Physical Therapy, a multidisciplinary private practice in Atlanta. For nearly five years she was a full-time sports physiotherapist for the WTA Tour and is a tennis medicine expert. She teaches a Sports Physical Therapy course and assists in teaching orthopedics within the Division of Physical Therapy at Emory University. Learn more by visiting or email Dr. Baudo Marchetti at

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